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Technology

Technology

Technology is the making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, and methods of organization

Overview

Technology is commonly considered the application of scientific or related types of knowledge to the practical aims of human life, or as it is otherwise phrased, to the change and manipulation of the human environment. It is also referred to as a branch of knowledge dealing with the creation and use of technical means. The development of technology draws upon various subjects, including industrial arts, engineering, applied science, and pure science. Technology is often a specific piece of equipment, which can range in technology—from a hand-held tool to a complex system, such as a turbine engine or a computer.

Technology can be broadly defined as entities, either material or immaterial, created through an application of mental and physical value to extract some value. This definition is simple and far-reaching and refers to tools and machines capable of solving real-world problems. The ability to develop "technology" is often considered the single attribute that distinguishes Homo sapiens, with their ability to make and use new tools, from other animals.

Etymology

The root of the word technology is believed to have come from the Greek word teckne for "art" or "craft" and logia for "study" or "speak." These combined words create teknologia, considered an earlier form of the word technology. However, the word teks is also considered to be an older, proto-Indo-European root meaning "to weave" or "to fabricate." The word teks is also found in related words such as architect, context, polytechnic, technical, textile, or tectonic.

By the 1610s, the Greek tekhnologia is used to refer to a "systematic treatment of an art, craft, or technique," originally referring to grammar. By 1829, the first use of technology appears in the sense of "the practical application of knowledge, especially in a particular area."

Types of Technology

Depending on who is asked, the types or categories of technology can be as few as six, or as many as thirty, if not more. How many and what the categories are depend on the angle and interest of the individual who is categorizing technology. For example, one individual may categorize technologies based on significant individual technologies, such as sensors; while another individual may categorize technologies based on their impact and use in general business. Often, a single piece of technology may overlap across categories, but the higher level six categories of technology include: communication, electrical, energy, manufacturing, medical, and transportation. Many of these simple categories could be broken down further.

Communication

Communication technology tends to consist of any technology used to communicate, with some examples including Morse code and the telegraph. This has continued to develop into a lot of the infrastructure of more modern communications, such as mobile phones, computers, fax, emails, text messaging, and 3G, 4G, and 5G technologies or the internet. And communication technology also tends to include information technologies as well.

Electrical

Many pieces of modern technology use electricity in one form or another. This could include computers, circuitry, artificial intelligence, software, or audio and visual technology. This category of technology is widespread and an example of the high degree of overlap through the different types of technology, as many software programs could be considered a form of communication technology.

Energy

Energy technology can be broadly defined as processes or technologies that improve or create new opportunities for the capture, development, and transfer of energy. This could include energy storage technologies, solar panels, wind turbines, or nuclear technology.

Mechanical

Mechanical technology is the application of engineering principles to achieve tasks with greater efficiency than traditional methods. This is a broad technology category, used to describe a variety of machinery for manufacturing or heavy engineering.

Medical

Medical technology is often defined as the application of science to develop solutions to health problems or issues. This can include the prevention or delay of onset of diseases or the promotion and monitoring of good health. This can include technology such as diagnostic systems, pharmaceuticals, surgical technology, and health monitoring systems.

Transportation

Transportation technology is any technology related to people travelling easier and faster than traditional means. This could include the following:

  • global positioning services
  • flight technology
  • vehicle technology
  • space technology
  • underground tunneling
  • hyperloop technology.
Technology sector

The technology sector is a category of businesses that sells goods and services in electronics, software, computers, artificial intelligence, and other industries related to information technology. This industry sector has a wide range of products and services for both consumers and businesses. Consumer goods focus on personal computers, mobile devices, wearable technology, home appliances, and televisions, and business goods focus on enterprise software, logistics systems, databases, and critical information and services.

The technology sector is attractive for investors, as business growth is driven by new ideas and new tools. For example, Apple, one of the largest companies in this industry sector, iterates upon the design of its personal computers, smartphones, and related accessories each year, which is in part responsible for driving a consumer need for new products, related to the "fear of missing out." Other large companies in the sector include Google, Meta, Tesla, Alibaba, PayPal, and Adobe. The differences in these companies' business practices and interests represent the breadth of the technology industry sector.

Timeline

Patents

Further Resources

Title
Author
Link
Type
Date

"Paleolithic Technology and Human Evolution"

Ambrose, Stanley H.

Article

2 March 2001

Democracy and Its Discontents

Tooze, Adam

Article

6 June 2019

NEW TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY WEBSITE

Huesemann, M.H.; Huesemann, J.A

Web

2011

Technics and Civilization

Mumford, Lewis

Web

2010

What is Technology?

Web

July 5, 2017

News

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Title
Author
Date
Publisher
Description
By ANNA LIZ NICHOLS
October 25, 2021
AP NEWS
LANSING, Mich. (AP) -- Democratic Gov. Gretchen Whitmer replaced the acting director of Michigan's Unemployment Insurance Agency on Monday following months of scrutiny from Republican lawmakers, New Director Julia Dale is coming from her position as director of the Michigan Department of Technology, Management and Budget.
Angelica Mari
October 13, 2021
ComputerWeekly.com
Up to 4,000 working professionals will be trained in subjects such as cyber security and agricultural robotics to plug the national skills gap
Dennis Overbye
October 4, 2021
www.nytimes.com
A recent study of black holes confirmed a fundamental prediction that the theoretical physicist made nearly five decades ago. But the ultimate award is beyond his reach.
September 30, 2021
AP NEWS
LANSING, Mich. (AP) -- Gov. Gretchen Whitmer on Thursday named a new state budget director and a new leader of the Department of Technology, Management and Budget.Christopher Harkins, director of the nonpartisan Senate Fiscal Agency, will succeed budget director Dave Massaron -- whose departure for a job at Wayne State University was previously announced.
Bob Lewis
September 28, 2021
CIO
Building effective IT 101: Technical architecture is what separates a hard-to-navigate pile of tech from accelerating IT's ability to get things done.
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References

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